Register File

Source files: rtl/ rtl/

CV32E41P has 31 32-bit wide registers which form registers x1 to x31. Register x0 is statically bound to 0 and can only be read, it does not contain any sequential logic.

The register file has three read ports and two write ports. Register file reads are performed in the ID stage. Register file writes are performed in the WB stage.

There are two flavors of register file available.

  • Flip-flop based (rtl/

  • Latch-based (rtl/

Both flavors have their own benefits and trade-offs. While the latch-based register file is recommended for ASICs, the flip-flop based register file is recommended for FPGA synthesis, although both are compatible with either synthesis target. Note the flip-flop based register file is significantly larger than the latch-based register-file for an ASIC implementation.

Flip-Flop-Based Register File

The flip-flop-based register file uses regular, positive-edge-triggered flip-flops to implement the registers. This makes it the first choice when simulating the design using Verilator. To select the flip-flop-based register file, make sure to use the source file in your project.

Latch-based Register File

The latch-based register file uses level-sensitive latches to implement the registers.

This allows for significant area savings compared to an implementation using regular flip-flops and thus makes the latch-based register file the first choice for ASIC implementations. Simulation of the latch-based register file is possible using commercial tools.


The latch-based register file cannot be simulated using Verilator.

The latch-based register file can also be used for FPGA synthesis, but this is not recommended as FPGAs may not support latches.

To select the latch-based register file, make sure to use the source file in your project. In addition, a technology-specific clock gating cell must be provided to keep the clock inactive when the latches are not written. This cell must be wrapped in a module called cv32e41p_clock_gate. For more information regarding the clock gating cell, checkout Getting Started with CV32E41P.

FPU Register File

If the optional FPU is instantiated, unless ZFINX is configured, the register file is extended with an additional register bank of 32 registers f0-f31. These registers are stacked on top of the existing register file and can be accessed concurrently with the limitation that a maximum of three operands per cycle can be read. Each of the three operands addresses is extended with a register file select signal which is generated in the instruction decoder when a FP instruction is decoded. This additional signals determines if the operand is located in the integer or the floating point register file.

Forwarding paths, and write-back logic are shared for the integer and floating point operations and are not replicated.